Tag Archives: Water

Heavy equipment required for construction of dam

Dam construction is one of the most important constructions in this world. Channelizing water supply and to store water, as well as to prevent flood, dams play a huge role. Sometimes, the dams are so beautifully structured and constructed that they can afford to bear rails and bridges for communication.

However, many people do not know how the dams are constructed on the rivers. Have you ever thought of the sort of engineering that might be engaged into constructing a dam? Without the support of the heavy construction equipment, it would be extremely difficult for the engineers to make the huge dams that hold such a huge amount of water pressure.

Types of dams:

Before you understand what it takes to build a dam, you need to understand the purposes that a dam might serve. Dams are constructed for various reasons. The most common ones are –

  • Providing protection from flood, by channelizing water supply
  • Reserving water or making water reservoirs at the backwater dams
  • Creating shipping channels as lateral dams
  • Producing hydroelectricity.

Whatever the type of dam may be, the construction equipment that is used is almost the same.

Heavy Construction Equipment Needed for Dam Construction:

  • Excavators:

 

The first step for dam construction is the diversion of the river. For that the excavators are used to dig the ground. Once the river is diverted on another side, the ground on which the dam needs to be made is excavated.

  • Loaders:

 

The debris from the excavated ground needs to be removed from the area. Hence, loaders are used to remove the debris from the ground. It is removed and taken to some other area, so that the area is completely cleared off the debris.

Once the loaders remove the debris, high power pumps are used to remove the water from the area. The entire area that is given a boundary with scaffold is dried up for further construction.

  • Compactors:

 

After the construction of the ground, the compactors help in making the area suitable for further construction. There are different kinds of compactors that can be used for making the site suitable for the construction of dam.

The ground is then filled with the concrete materials. Large volume of concrete is filled into this gap and then let to dry. Ready-mix trucks are used to fill the concrete into the structure of the dam. In case of huge large constructions, sometimes mixing plants are established right at the place of construction. This helps in supplying the concrete mix to the place of the construction.

The engineers make plans for the dam construction in such a way that it can hold the huge pressure of the water from the river. Some dams are smaller in size and some are larger. The gates are installed into the dam, so that water can be passed when needed. As the concrete is dried up entirely, the water path is again channelized into its original flow. It is then ready for storing water, holding water and also for generating hydro-electricity as needed.

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How are bridges built over water?

Bridges are one of the most important constructions of the modern civilization. It connects distant places with each other and people can easily travel from one place to another. We all have travelled by many bridges some time or the other. But, have we ever thought how the bridges are built over water?

Not only just the river banks are connected with bridges, but even two creeks or more creeks of the oceans are also connected with magnificent bridges. Building flyovers on the concrete roads is easier than building bridges over water. Here is something interesting and knowledgeable that will stun you about the advancement of modern civilization, power of construction and technology.

Factors associated with building bridges:

Before you go into how bridges are made, there are a few things that you need to keep in mind. The bridges over water can be of two types – the floating ones and the permanent ones. Quite obviously, the floating ones are not permanent and are used only temporarily. Hence, they do not need a foundation. But the permanent bridges need a foundation and for that there are three basic factors that need to be kept in mind. These are –

  • The condition of the site
  • The technical ability and engineering capacity of the contractor
  • The technology available in the country.

The first two factors are dependent on the engineers to measure. But, the factor of availability of technological support depends entirely on the construction equipment that is available. For that matter it must be mentioned that there are various types of construction equipment available in the market that are specially designed to support bridge construction.

Steps of constructing a bridge:

When bridges are built over large water bodies such as a very deep river or even the sea, the following steps are followed.

  • Constructing the Foundation:

 

In order to build the foundation, a bed is sunk inside the waterbed from the top. It is like a frame to the pillars that will hold the bridge in place. After that, a support pier is made with the help of rigs.

  • Construction of Cofferdam:

 

Around the support pier and rigs, a Cofferdam is made. It is a special type of wall that is created surrounding the foundation. Continuous pumping removes the water from inside. The area is completely dried out and then, the foundation is made.

  • Bringing everything together:

 

After the construction of the foundation, the support piers are either cast in the yard or cast in place. Sometimes, this process is done elsewhere and then, barges are used to bring everything together.

Once this is done, the gaps are joined with segments of concrete structure.

Sometimes, the segments are supported by huge suspension cables. As they are brought into position, they are stitched together. Though these are the most common methods of constructing a bridge, there are other methods as well that are followed to construct the bridges. Certainly, the methods that are followed for bridges in shallow water are different from that in the deep water.

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Water crisis can have serious impact on the construction industry

This summer has dried up many lakes and water bodies in many parts of the country. Not only US but many countries all around the world are facing severe water shortage and are finding it difficult to sustain. Agriculture sector that depends primarily on rain water is not doing well because of acute deficiency and most likely the prices of agricultural products will shoot up considerably in the coming days. So is it only affecting the agricultural sector in a major way or are there any other industry as well that is being hit hard by this issue. Water which is such an important component in our day to day lives, scarcity of it can affect many industries and some of the most profitable industries can take a backseat as far as their businesses are concerned. One such industry is the construction industry can is currently facing the brunt of water shortage.

Water is required in immense quantity in a construction site. Not just for keeping the employees hydrated but also for other purposes like mixing cement with sand, spraying water on the ground to restrict the flow of dust on the site etc. It is also required to clean heavy equipment and lot of water is required for that purpose. Fluctuation in the price of fuel has a big impact on this industry but shortage of water can have ever lasting impact on many big construction companies. You need fuel to run heavy equipment but you need water to meet every small need of yours which can’t be compensated by any other component. Countries in the gulf are paying a heavy price to port water from their sources to the construction site which is why the prices of the final product is relatively higher.

A big construction company has to spend a lot on aqua and if it is in crisis then they may even experience shutting down of projects. His workforce will need water to drink and if he can’t even provide that basic necessity he will soon find people leaving his company. But the fact is drinking water has never been such a big issue in this country. The construction labors are able to get drinking water while they are at the jobsite. The problem is with water that is needed for construction purpose. There they might feel the pinch and it will definitely pain a lot.

Many parts of Asia and South America, the construction sector has already taken a backseat due to scarcity of water. The government in some countries has curtailed the use of water for construction purposes which had a big impact on the overall sector. Though they understand that the crisis is not going to be forever and till the time it does not rain, the problem might remain. However, once it starts raining, things might come back to normal. But the important part is to sustain till the time it is not monsoon.

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